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Science Notes

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Chapter 1 Section 1

1. The process (or steps) used by a scientist to solve a problem are called the scientific method.

2. The steps to the scientific method are:

1. State the problem
2. Gather information
3. Form a hypothesis
4. Test the hypothesis (experiment)
5. Analyze data
6. Draw Conclusions

3. The hypothesis is the possible anwser to a scientific question.
4. A hypothesis must be able to be tested with experiments.
5. An experiment is an organized way of collecting facts (or data).
6. When a hypothesis is supported by the work of many scientists, it may be called a theory. A theory is not a fact but it is more than a hypothesis.
7. A controlled experiment will have at least two groups. A control group and an experimental group.
8. In the control group nothing is changed.
9. In the experimental group one thing is changed. This is called the independent variable.
10. There are two types of variables.
A. The independent variable is the one thing the scientist changes.
B. The dependent variable is what happens when the scientist makes the change. It is measurable.
11. A constant is something that does not change.

Chap. 27 Section 1

1. Natural resources are materials from the environment that humans use. They may be renewable or non-renewable.

2. Renewable resources are resources that can be replaced by the environment. (Example - trees)

3. Nonrenewable resources are resources that are not replaced by the environment fast enough to build new supplies. (Example - coal)

4. Fossil fuels are fuels formed in earth's crust over a long period of time. (Coal, Natural Gas, Oil) (Non-renewable)

5. Alternatives to fossil fuels

A. Hydroelectric
B. Wind power
C. Nuclear power - energy released when atomic nuclei from uranium are split in a nuclear fission reaction
D. Geothermal energy - heat in the Earth's crust
E. Solar Energy

6. Conservation is the careful use of resources.